2. Use Styles, Format Titles with Headings
The use of Styles makes document formatting much easier. It provides a coherent look for similar parts of the document (titles, paragraphs, etc.) without adjusting manually the formatting of each element of the document.
Styles not only have a pre-set combination of font type, size, color, line spacing, adjustment, etc. but certain styles feature functional programming elements. That's how it becomes possible to generate a Table of Contents by using Heading styles, or generate a List of Figures/Tables by inserting Captions to images/tables.
The thesis must have a Table of Contents (TOC) listing chapter headings, section headings and sub-headings, Appendices and References as well as their corresponding page number.
- Word has a built in function to generate automatically a Table of Contents.
- To make this function work you need to apply the built-in Heading styles to your chapter titles and sub-titles.
Use Heading 1 for chapter titles, Heading 2 for sub-titles, Heading 3 for sub-sub titles, etc.
(Titles prior to the Introduction do not have to appear in the Table of Contents, so you do not need to apply Heading styles to these.)
2.1 Apply Heading Styles
To apply a Heading style select the title you want to format, and click the required Heading level in the style list.
Here you find the Style list:
- in Word 2007 - 2013:
Select the Home tab >> Styles group.
You will find a selection of styles with preview on the ribbon, however, opening the style list in a side pane could be more convenient.
To open the side pane click on the small arrow in the bottom right corner of the Styles group.
- in Word 2003:
Use the icon or the "Format >> Styles and Formatting" option from the menu. This will open a pane on the right side of the document listing the available styles.
Alternatively you can use the Style droplist on the toolbar. It will appear before the Font type droplist.
- in Word 2007 - 2013:
2.1.1 Modify Styles
With default settings most of styles do not completely fit the CEU thesis formatting standards so you need to modify them in the style list.
184.108.40.206 How to modify
In the style list right-click on the style you want to modify >> select Modify >> set parameters:
- Font type: only Arial, Times New Roman or Garamond
- Line spacing: although body of thesis should have a double line spacing, Headings may have smaller line spacing
- Font color: there are no strict regulations on the color of Headings, but preferably it should be set to black
- Update automatically: set this option to automatically update text already formatted with this style in your document.
220.127.116.11 Modify all other styles you will use
It is useful to correct all other styles you need. To see all available styles select at the bottom of the Styles side pane the Options >> Select Styles to Show >> All Styles
Consider modifying at least the following styles:
- Normal: use it for the Abstract and body of the thesis. Should be font size 12 pt, double spacing, recommended justified alignment.
- Footnote Text: the footnotes will appear in this style. Should be font type the same as Normal style, size 10 pt, single spacing, recommended left aligned.
- Caption: used to add caption (text, description) to images or tables. Use it if you want to make then a List of Figures or Tables.
- Page number: the are no strict regulations but recommended to use the same as for Normal style.
2.2 Hint 1: In case you have chapter titles in two rows
If you want to force your chapter titles to break in two rows you should divide the two lines with a Shift+Enter command.This way the two lines will appear in the Table of Contents as one coherent chapter title.
Otherwise, separating them with a simple Enter command, they would appear in the TOC in two lines, as two completely separate chapter titles.
If necessary, use the Show/Hide function to identify which formatting you have.
Wrong formatting: the two title lines are separated by an Enter command
Proper formatting: the two title lines are separated correctly by a Shift+Enter command
2.3 Hint 2: Tired of scrolling? Use the Navigation Pane
Tired of scrolling all along your thesis looking for the page you need? Use the Navigation Pane / Document Map to go to a heading or a page in your document. It opens in a separate pane on the left side of the document. Just click the heading where you want to go. (Note, only text formatted with Heading styles appears.)
In later program versions you can use it to navigate to pages or search results, or even to reorganize sections of you document by dragging them to the required place.
Note, in earlier versions the same function is called Document Map, and shows only Headings but not pages.
You can find the Document Map:
- in Word 2010 - 2013:
On the View tab >> Show group >> tick Navigation Pane, or
click the Page count on the Status bar (left bottom corner).
- in Word 2007:
On the View tab >> Show/Hide group >> tick Document Map.
- in Word 2010-2013:
On the Standard toolbar or in the menu under View >> Document Map.
You might have empty lines appearing in the NavPane.
This means you have empty lines in your document that have a Heading formatting.
From the point of view of your thesis it is not a big problem, as long as these empty lines do not appear in your Table of Contents.
However, if you wish to make the empty lines disappear:
- Click on the empty line in the NavPane
The cursor will jump to the corresponding line in the text.
- If you open the Style list you will see that this line is in "Heading" or some other special style.
Set it to the style you need - probably Normal style.
The empty line from the NavPane should disappear.