Section outline

  • General

    Correct formatting of your Word document is essential to submit your thesis/dissertation to the ETD database.
    This tutorial will guide you through the key points of the formatting.

    Please note, your thesis formatting has to match several other requirements. The complete CEU Thesis Writing and ETD Submission Guidelines you can find on CEU Official Documents (with Novell password), on Academic Writing Center's website (under Other Thesis Resources) or attached below.


    • Correct pagination
    • Using Heading styles for the titles and sub-titles
    • Inserting a Table of Contents that is generated automatically by Word, based on the applied Headings


  • Section 1

    1. Correct Pagination

    According to the
    Thesis Writing Guidelines, your thesis should have the following pagination:

    • Title Page - NO page number
    • Body of the Thesis (starting with the Introduction) – Arabic page numbers (1, 2, 3, etc.)
    • Pages between the Title Page and the Body of the Thesis – Small roman numbers (i, ii, iii, iv, etc.)

    This can be achieved by applying a combination of Next Page Section Breaks and unlinked section Footers. 
    This is how the formatting should look like. Note the placement of Section and Page breaks and the change of page number format.

    Section breaks and page numbering

    1.1 Create Sections

    First you have to create 3 Sections for those 3 parts of the document by inserting Next Page Section Breaks.

    1.1.1. Make visible the formatting marks

    Word for Windows has a feature - Show/Hide - that helps to identify applied formatting (space, new line, new paragraph, breaks, etc.). A useful tool when you want to add section breaks or page breaks to your document.
    Note, Word for Macintosh does not have this feature. Mac users, just skip this part. Applying breaks will work without having this function turned on.

    This is where you find the Show/Hide Show/Hide icon function:

      • in Word 2007 - 2013:
        Select the Home tab >> Paragraph group >> Show/Hide icon
      • in Word 2003:
        on the Standard toolbar

    1.1.2. Apply Section breaks

    Insert Next Page Section Breaks one by one to the required places (see the image above). For this click the cursor where you want to have the section break, at the:

      • end of the Title Page
      • end of the page that is standing before the Introduction.

    Then insert the break:

      • in Word 2007 - 2013:
        Page layout tab >> Page Setup group >> Breaks icon >> Section Break - Next page
      • in Word 2003:
        Insert menu >> Break... >> Section breaks type: Next page

    1.2 Unlink Footers

    To be able to set different page number formats you have to unlink the Footers of the 3 Sections from each other.

    1.2.1 How the Footer works

    Page numbers should go in the Footer area, at the center bottom of the page.
    Footer (and Header) area is used for inserting text that should appear automatically on all pages of the document.
    Applying a combination of Next Page Section Breaks and unlinked section Footers allow different formatting/text in each section's Footer.  

    Sections Footers are linked to each other by default. Linked state is indicated with the "Linked to or Same as Previous" note when the Footer area is active. (The same is valid for Headers.)
    When the Footer is unlinked, this note disappears.
    (The same icon is used to link or unlink.) 

    1.2.2. Do this:

    Unlinking has to be done at each new section one by one.

      • in Word 2007 - 2013:
        • Activate the Footer: double-click on the very bottom of page or use Insert tab >> Header & Footer group >> Footer icon >> Edit Footer option at the bottom of the list 
        • Navigate: click the cursor in the Footer of the 2nd section
        • Unlink the Footer: Design tab >> Navigation group >> Link to Previous icon
        • Repeat: do the same with the 3rd section's Footer
      • in Word 2003:
        • Activate the Footer:  View menu >> tick Header and Footer >> the area will get active and a row of icons should pop up
        • Navigate: click the cursor in the Footer of the 2nd section 
        • Unlink the Footer: click the "Link to previous" icon on the pop-up row
        • Repeat: do the same with the 3rd section's Footer

    1.3 Insert Page Numbers

    Insert the page numbers to the 2nd and 3rd Sections.
    Note, if you already have page numbers in your document, you should delete the page number from the Title page.

      • in Word 2007 - 2013:
        • Navigate: click the cursor in the Footer of the 2nd section
        • Insert page number: Design tab >> Header & Footer group >> Page Number icon >> Bottom of Page >> select centered location (i.e. Plain Number 2)
        • Format page number:Design tab >> Header & Footer group >> Page Number icon >> Format Page Numbers >>
          Set Number format to lower case roman numbers (i, ii, iii); Set Page number start at 1.
        • Repeat: do the same with the 3rd section, but set page number format to Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3)
      • in Word 2003:
        • Navigate: click the cursor in the Footer of the 2nd section
        • Insert formatted page numbers: Insert menu >> Page numbers... >> Position: Bottom of the page; Format: select lower case roman numbers (i, ii, iii); set Page number start at 1
        • Repeat: do the same with the 3rd section, but set page number format to Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3)

     Back to beginning of Topic 1 ↑ 

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    • Section 2

      2. Use Styles, Format Titles with Headings


      The use of Styles makes document formatting much easier. It provides a coherent look for similar parts of the document (titles, paragraphs, etc.) without adjusting manually the formatting of each element of the document. 
      Styles not only have a pre-set combination of font type, size, color, line spacing, adjustment, etc. but certain styles feature functional programming elements. That's how it becomes possible to generate a Table of Contents by using Heading styles, or generate a List of Figures/Tables by inserting Captions to images/tables.

      The thesis must have a Table of Contents (TOC) listing chapter headings, section headings and sub-headings, Appendices and References as well as their corresponding page number.

      • Word has a built in function to generate automatically a Table of Contents.
      • To make this function work you need to apply the built-in Heading styles to your chapter titles and sub-titles.
        Use Heading 1 for chapter titles, Heading 2 for sub-titles, Heading 3 for sub-sub titles, etc.
        (Titles prior to the Introduction do not have to appear in the Table of Contents, so you do not need to apply Heading styles to these.)

      2.1 Apply Heading Styles

      To apply a Heading style select the title you want to format, and click the required Heading level in the style list.
      Here you find the Style list:

        • in Word 2007 - 2013:
          Select the Home tab >> Styles group.
          You will find a selection of styles with preview on the ribbon, however, opening the style list in a side pane could be more convenient.
          To open the side pane
           click on the small arrow in the bottom right corner of the Styles group.

          Style list in Word 2013

        • in Word 2003:
          Use the Style icon icon or the "Format >> Styles and Formatting" option from the menu. This will open a pane on the right side of the document listing the available styles.
          Alternatively you can use the Style droplist on the toolbar. It will appear before the Font type droplist. 
          Style droplist

      2.1.1 Modify Styles

      With default settings most of styles do not completely fit the CEU thesis formatting standards so you need to modify them in the style list How to modify

      In the style list right-click on the style you want to modify >> select Modify >> set parameters:

          • Font type: only Arial, Times New Roman or Garamond
          • Line spacing: although body of thesis should have a double line spacing, Headings may have smaller line spacing
          • Font color: there are no strict regulations on the color of Headings, but preferably it should be set to black
          • Update automatically: set this option to automatically update text already formatted with this style in your document. 

            Modify Styles in Word 2013 Modify all other styles you will use

      It is useful to correct all other styles you need. To see all available styles select at the bottom of the Styles side pane the Options >> Select Styles to Show >> All Styles

      Show all available styles

      Consider modifying at least the following styles:

          • Normal: use it for the Abstract and body of the thesis. Should be font size 12 pt, double spacing, recommended justified alignment.
          • Footnote Text: the footnotes will appear in this style. Should be font type the same as Normal style, size 10 pt, single spacing, recommended left aligned.
          • Caption: used to add caption (text, description) to images or tables. Use it if you want to make then a List of Figures or Tables.
          • Page number: the are no strict regulations but recommended to use the same as for Normal style.  

      Hint 1: In case you have chapter titles in two rows

      If you want to force your chapter titles to break in two rows you should divide the two lines with a Shift+Enter command.This way the two lines will appear in the Table of Contents as one coherent chapter title.
      Otherwise, separating them with a simple Enter command, they would appear in the TOC in two lines, as two completely separate chapter titles.
      If necessary, use the Show/Hide function to identify which formatting you have. 

      Wrong formatting of chapter titles

      Wrong formatting: the two title lines are separated by an Enter command


      • the red Paragraph mark indicating the Enter command at the end of the first line of the chapter title,

      • two titles appear in the TOC.

      How chapter title appears in the TOC when the two title lines are separated correctly by a shift+Enter command

      Proper formatting: the two title lines are separated correctly by a Shift+Enter command


      • the mark indicating the Shift+Enter command at the end of the first line of the chapter title,
      • the title appears in one line in the TOC.


      2.3 Hint 2: Tired of scrolling? Use the Navigation Pane

      Tired of scrolling all along your thesis looking for the page you need? Use the Navigation Pane / Document Map to go to a heading or a page in your document. It opens in a separate pane on the left side of the document. Just click the heading where you want to go. (Note, only text formatted with Heading styles appears.)
      In later program versions you can use it to navigate to pages or search results, or even to reorganize sections of you document by dragging them to the required place.  

      Note, in earlier versions the same function is called Document Map, and shows only Headings but not pages.

      You can find the Document Map:

      • in Word 2010 - 2013:
        On the View tab >> Show group >> tick Navigation Pane, or
        click the Page count on the Status bar (left bottom corner).

        Navigation Pane in Word 2013

      • in Word 2007:
        On the View tab >> Show/Hide group >> tick Document Map.

      • in Word 2010-2013:
        On the Standard toolbar DocMap or in the menu under View >> Document Map.

        Document Map in Word 2003

      2.3.1 Tricks

      You might have empty lines appearing in the NavPane
      This means you have empty lines in your document that have a Heading formatting.
      From the point of view of your thesis it is not a big problem, as long as these empty lines do not appear in your Table of Contents.

      Document Map with empty lines

      However, if you wish to make the empty lines disappear:

      1. Click on the empty line in the NavPane
        The cursor will jump to the corresponding line in the text.
      2. If you open the Style list you will see that this line is in "Heading" or some other special style. 
        Set it to the style you need - probably Normal style. 
        The empty line from the NavPane should disappear.

       Back to beginning of Topic 2 ↑ 

       Back to Top ↑ 

      • Section 3

        3. How to generate a Table of Contents


        Once you have the titles and sub-titles set to Heading styles it's easy to generate a TOC.
        You need to click the cursor to the place where you want to insert the TOC, then use the built-in feature

        Note, if you make any modifications in the document that cause shifting of page numbers or you alter titles, you need to update the TOC! .
        Update by right-clicking on the table of contents and select "Update entire table" from the dialogue box.

        3.1 Generate the Table of Contents

        • in Word 2003:
          Select from the menu Insert >> Reference >> Index and Tables >> select the Table of Contents tab on the dialogue box.

          Find TOC inserting in the menu

        • in Word 2007 - 2013:
          Select References tab >> Table of Contents group >> Table of Contents icon.
          You will find two Automatic Table options listed first. They show only Heading 1 to Heading 3 levels in the TOC, no matter how many levels more you have in your document.
          Should you wish to include more than 3 levels of Headings, select the Custom Table of Contents (2013) or Insert Table of Contents (2007-2010) option at the end of the list. 

          Insert Table of Contents in Word 2010

        3.2 Hint 1: You might have extra text lines appearing in the TOC that should not be there

        Extra text lines appearing in the TOC This means you have text in your document left by accident in Heading, Footnote, Reference or some other Style.

        To erase such content from the TOC permanently:

        • Reset the Style of these fragments to Normal (Same way as to erase empty lines from the DocMap, described in Topic 2, Hint 2.)
        • If necessary adjust formatting to the required font type and size.
        • Update the TOC by right-clicking on the table of contents and select "Update entire table" from the dialogue box.


         Back to beginning of Topic 3 ↑

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        • Section 4

          4. Videos and Tutorials

          Inserting Section breaks and Page numbers - Word 2003 - video
          In this video you will find a slightly different pagination formatting than it is required for your CEU thesis/dissertation.
          Inserting Section breaks and Page numbers - Word 2007 - video
          In this video you will find a slightly different pagination formatting than it is required for your CEU thesis/dissertation.
          Inserting Section breaks and Page numbers, including pages with Landscape orientation - Word 2007 - video
          In this video you will find almost the same pagination formatting as it is required for your CEU thesis/dissertation, just placed in the Header of the document.

           Back to Top ↑