Peasants in general made up the great majority of the constituencies claimed by the region’s national movements and budding nation states. The course invites students to map out continuities and ruptures in the peasantry’s collective identifications during the long nineteenth century and to assess how far peasants became conscious nationals by WW1. The first six classes will examine pre-existent ethnic and related divisions from a backward-looking perspective and will discuss how they facilitated or hampered nationalisation. The second half of the course will be dedicated to interactions between elites and ethnic bases and to formative conflicts. With each topic, we will first undertake a case-by-case survey of the region and will then turn to the specific contexts described in the assigned readings and in other relevant historiography.