This Topical Survey course offers an overview of the development of towns in Europe from  Late Antiquity to the twenty-first century, in other words from their post-Roman origins through their medieval and Early Modern transformations to industrialization and the contemporary urbanism. The course will primarily focus on European urban development, but following the recent broadening of the field, this will be placed in a global perspective. The sessions and the readings will discuss aspects of social, economic and cultural life, from families and households through fraternities, corporations, and urban communities to commercial and industrial enterprises, municipal governments and urban planning initiatives. The course will also analyze the spatial development, physical and social topography of cities and towns in the context of their natural environment, geographical locations, statehood, politics, and culture.